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Can you prove a hypothesis

This photo corroborates the basic statement «On this day, there were black swans on this waterway», which contradicts the can you prove a hypothesis «All swans are white», but the contradicting basic statement alone makes the law falsifiable: it would still be falsifiable, even if there were only white swans.

The concept was introduced by the philosopher of science Karl Popper. He saw falsifiability as the logical part and the cornerstone of his scientific epistemology, which sets the limits of scientific inquiry. The classical view of the philosophy of science is that it is the goal of science to prove hypotheses like «All swans are white» or to induce them from observational data. One solution to the problem of induction, proposed by Immanuel Kant in Critique of Pure Reason, is to consider as valid absolutely a priori the conclusions that we would otherwise have drawn from these dubious inferential inductions. For a statement to be questioned using observation, it needs to be at least theoretically possible that it can come into conflict with observation. I shall require that logical form shall be such that it can be singled out, by means of empirical tests, in a negative sense: it must be possible for an empirical scientific system to be refuted by experience.

Objections can be raised against falsifiability as a criterion of demarcation similar to those which can be raised against verifiability. This attack would not disturb me. For these are never derivable from singular statements, but can be contradicted by singular statements. In its simple form, the point here is that although a singular existential statement such as ‘there is a white swan in Europe’ cannot be used to affirm a universal statement, it can be used to show that one is false: the statement ‘there is a non white swan in Australia’ implies that the universal statement ‘all swans are white’ is false. Such a simple contradiction with a basic statement is not what Popper calls a falsification. Contemporary philosopher David Miller mentions that other similar objections have been anticipated and answered by Popper.

The falsifiability criterion a not you that unfalsifiable systems such as logic, mathematics and metaphysics are prove parts of science. Contrary to intuition, unfalsifiable statements can be embedded in—and deductively entailed by—falsifiable theories. At the logical level, scientists use deductive logic to attempt hypothesis falsify can. These other criteria may take into account a metaphysical research program.

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They are not considered in the formal falsifiability criterion, but they can give a meaning to this criterion. Such a background knowledge is thus implicit in the definition of falsifiability and corresponds to different types of statements, their relationship and their interpretation in terms of observations and measurements. Recall that a theory is falsifiable if it is contradicted by a basic statement. It remains to define what kind of statements create theories and what are basic statements. Scientific theories are a particular kind of universal statements.

Existential and universal statements are built-in concepts in logic. The first are statements such as «there is a white swan». Logicians call these statements existential statements, since they assert the existence of something. Unlike existential and universal statements, singular and strict statements are not built-in concepts in logic, because they correspond to a specific perspective on our experience of the world.

H2O’ are universal concepts or universal names. Atlantic’ are singular or individual concepts or names. In these examples individual concepts or names appear to be characterized either by being proper names, or by having to be defined by means of proper names, whilst universal concepts or names can be defined without the use of proper names. A statement is strict or pure, if it does not use any individual name. So, a law of nature cannot refer to particular things. The sentence «This apple is attracted by the planet earth» is not a scientific statement. A statement is singular if it contains an individual name or the equivalent.

So, a basic statement must make reference to a specific thing or specific location and time. The sentence «There exists a black swan» is not a basic statement, but the statement «There is a black swan on the shore of the Swan River» is a basic statement, it is a singular existential statement. Popper arrived at these conditions through an analysis of what one expects from basic statements. In addition, a basic statement must be inter-subjective. So, «John saw a black swan on the shore of the Swan River» is not a basic statement.

If a plant cannot use the glucose immediately it books times it in the form of starch.
The alternative way is to read a newspapers, watch critical thinking creative thinking television program and write about any current issue going on in the world.

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