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Discussion thesis

Three discussion thesis of indeterminacy arise, of which two relate to indeterminacy of translation.

Indeterminacy of reference refers to the interpretation of words or phrases in isolation, and Quine’s thesis is that no unique interpretation is possible, because a ‘radical interpreter’ has no way of telling which of many possible meanings the speaker has in mind. Quine uses the example of the word «gavagai» uttered by a native speaker of the unknown language Arunta upon seeing a rabbit. A speaker of English could do what seems natural and translate this as «Lo, a rabbit. Thus, translating some native utterance as, say, «Pelicans are our half-brothers» is a much more contextual affair.

His claim is not that successful translation is impossible, but that it is multiply possible. These observations about the need for context brings up the next topic, holophrastic indeterminacy. The second kind of indeterminacy, which Quine sometimes refers to as holophrastic indeterminacy, is another matter. Here the claim is that there is more than one correct method of translating sentences where the two translations differ not merely in the meanings attributed to the sub-sentential parts of speech but also in the net import of the whole sentence. It is confusing that Quine’s choice of meaning for ‘holophrastic’, contrasting it with sub-sentential phrases, appears to run counter to its accepted meaning in linguistics, «expressing a complex of ideas in a single word or in a fixed phrase». Quine considers the methods available to a field linguist attempting to translate a hitherto unknown language he calls Arunta. He suggests that there are always different ways one might break a sentence into words, and different ways to distribute functions among words.

Indeterminacy of translation also applies to the interpretation of speakers of one’s own language, and even to one’s past utterances. In Quine’s view, the indeterminacy of translation leads to the inability to separate analytic statements whose validity lies in the usage of language from synthetic statements, those that assert facts about the world. The argument hinges on the role of synonymy in analytic statements, «A natural suggestion, deserving close examination, is that the synonymy of two linguistic forms consists simply in their interchangeability in all contexts without change of truth value». Chapter 16: The indeterminacy of discussion thesis«. A Companion to the Philosophy of Language. Chapter 9: The refutation of conventionalism». Volume 2: Mind, Language and Reality.

It thesis

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Confessions of a Confirmed Extensionalist: And Other Essays. A lecture «Three Indeterminacies,» presented at the Quine symposium at Washington University in April 1988. Indeterminacy of Translation and Under-Determination of the Theory of Nature. Translation, physics, and facts of the matter. Open Court: La Salle, 1986, pp.

Perspective transformation, leading to transformative learning, occurs infrequently. An important part of transformative learning is for individuals to change their frames of reference by critically reflecting on their assumptions and beliefs and consciously making and implementing plans that bring about new ways of defining their worlds. This process is fundamentally rational and analytical. Jack Mezirow developed transformative learning theory starting in 1978. Since then, the theory has evolved «into a comprehensive and complex description of how learners construe, validate, and reformulate the meaning of their experience. A defining condition of being human is that we have to understand the meaning of our experience. For some, any uncritically assimilated explanation by an authority figure will suffice.

But in contemporary societies we must learn to make our own interpretations rather than act on the purposes, beliefs, judgements, and feelings of others. A perspective transformation leading to transformative learning, however, occurs much less frequently. Mezirow believes that this less frequent transformation usually results from a «disorienting dilemma», which is triggered by a life crisis or major life transition, although it may also result from an accumulation of transformations in meaning schemes over a period of time. A number of critical responses to Mezirow’s theory of transformative learning have emerged over the years. One criticism of Mezirow’s theory is its emphasis upon rationality.

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I was struggling with my English paper so much I dissertation management kill myself (figuratively speaking of course).

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